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Plant Pollination Strategies: Getting Plant Sperm from Here to There

In order to make offspring, many plants must transfer their pollen, which contains plant sperm, to the female parts of another plant. Unlike animals, plants can't move around to find potential mates. Many plants have overcome this problem by forming partnerships with animals that act as pollinators....(more)

Asexual Reproduction vs. Sexual Reproduction

Most organisms on Earth make as many offspring as they can. Organisms like bacteria reproduce asexually to make offspring identical to the parent. Other organisms like many animals reproduce sexually: two parents each contribute a single cell to make offspring that have traits from both parents....(more)

An In-depth Look at Flower Reproduction

People often appreciate flowers for their beauty, but may not know that plants make flowers for sexual reproduction. Flowers contain female parts that make eggs, and male parts that make sperm. When plant sperm joins with plant eggs, seeds develop that will grow into a new generation of plants....(more)

Four New Ways to Fight Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

Bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to existing antibiotics. To deal with the rising problem, healthcare officials are looking for new strategies to prevent infection and to fight infection when it occurs. This article presents four developments in the battle against resistant bacteria....(more)


Anatomical Planes and Directions

The vastness of the human body's inventory of parts can prove overwhelming. As a result, medical professionals use certain techniques to describe the location of body parts. The most common and useful tools in locating bodily regions are anatomical planes and directions. There are a number of different anatomical planes, or imaginary cuts through the body and anatomical directions, and they combine to give precise coordinates for locations within the body....(more)

Where Are Tundras Found?

To many people, the tundra is nothing more than a passing thought. After all, it's not necessarily a tourist destination and what use would most citizens have for what amounts to be a large chunk of ice? Truth be told, the tundra is very important all around the world, and the vulnerability of tundra could have a trickle-down measure that affects a wide reaching area....(more)

Locations of Grasslands Throughout the World

In your travels throughout the world, you may find yourself encountering huge expanses of land completely covered in grass and little else. Even if you are not trying to find the location of grasslands, they are hard to miss. In some areas, you are met with the sight of tall, wavy grass. In other areas, it is much shorter and scrubby-looking. Most of the grasslands are located in four major areas of the world....(more)


Different Subjects in the Field of Biology

The field of biology encompasses the study of all living organisms: plants, animals, bacteria, viruses and human beings. It is a large area, of study and it includes many different subjects. These subjects are often viewed academically as independent disciplines, but they share many common characteristics....(more)

Understanding the Steps of Glycolysis: A Scientific Overview

Energy in living organisms is chiefly found in the form of the molecule ATP. One main form of ATP production is through the use of electrons stored in the nutrient molecule glucose, which are extracted through a series of breakdown reactions. Later steps of this extraction process, known as cellular respiration, can be either anaerobic (without oxygen) or aerobic (requiring oxygen), depending on the species and the surrounding conditions. Glycolysis is the first step in cellular respiration, and its reactions are similar across all living organisms. These reactions are introduced below....(more)

Biology Ideas for Your Next Class Project

Biology is a required course for junior high, high school and some elementary-level course work. Even college programs generally require at least one science course, and biology is one of the many that is offered. As part of these courses, projects are generally a requirement. These projects may be left up to the student to do on their own, or they may be specified by the teacher or the class's curriculum. Regardless of the reason, the following are a few ideas for biology projects that can be completed in class or at home....(more)

Biology Expert

Rene Fester Kratz

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Rene Fester Kratz believes that everyone can understand, and benefit from, a little science in their life. In her teaching and writing, she breaks down complicated subjects into straightforward explanations. Rene's personal expertise is in biology: she holds a B.A. in biology from Boston University and a Ph.D. in botany... Read More

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